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Victorian Information Commissioner

State of Victoria

August 2019

Authors:

Professor Toby Walsh – Understanding AI
Ms Katie Miller – A matter of perspective: Discrimination, bias and inequality in AI
Dr Jake Goldenfein – Algorithmic transparency and decision-making accountability:
Thoughts for buying machine learning algorithms
Distinguished Professor Fang Chen and Dr Jianlong Zhou – AI in the public interest
Dr Richard Nock – Algorithms, neural networks and other machine learning techniques
Associate Professor Benjamin Rubinstein – Data security and AI
Emeritus Professor Margaret Jackson – Regulating AI

Editors
Cliff Bertram
Asher Gibson
Adriana Nugent

Reference:

Closer to the Machine: Technical, social and legal aspects of AI

This book contains seven chapters, exploring the technical, social and legal aspects of
artificial intelligence. While each chapter looks at different aspects to be considered in
developing and implementing AI, there are some common themes. One is that despite
enormous progress in AI, we are only just beginning to see the potential benefits
and problems it may bring. Another is that the decision-making and risk analysis
frameworks for implementing AI into our modern lives may need some adjustment, but
not at the expense of human rights and privacy.

Firstly, the book provides a brief overview of the history of AI, then it looks at discrimination, bias and inequality in AI and how these concepts are understood differently by law and technology, and how they might be addressed.  Next the book focuses on how AI
is increasingly used to make decisions, the ramifications that has on transparency and
accountability, and how we could tackle those issues.  Following, it covers many of the ways in which AI can, and is, being used in the public interest, from making strategic decisions to maintaining the Sydney Harbour Bridge.  We then discover how AI actually works; how computers can perform tasks without being told how, security and privacy challenges and how finally, then the book explores how AI is already being regulated, and how we could update old laws or create new ones to respond to AI.